Óscar Moisés Torres Montúfar

Óscar Moisés Torres Montúfar

International Research Training Group "Between Spaces"

Movements, Actors and Representations of Globalisation

PhD Candidate

Field of Activity

Project: "Chemists, minors and petroleum dealers: globalisation and technology in Mexico´s sulphur industry (1920-1972)"

Email otorres@colmex.mx

2013 to present

PhD Candidate in History, El Colegio de México, Mexico City

2011-2013

M.A. in Philosophy, Science and Values, Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

2011-2015

M.A. in Philosophy of Science, Specialty in History of Science, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico.

2004-2011

BS in History, UNAM, Mexico City, 2004-2011, grade: 9.38. Thesis: El oro de los mexicas: las distintas facetas de un instrumento de cohesión social en el marco de un imperio mesoamericano.

 
   
   
   

Chemists, minors and petroleum dealers: globalisation and technology in Mexico´s sulphur industry (1920-1972)


Supervisor: Dr. María Cecilia Zuleta (Colmex)


My research will follow three lines of analysis: 1) geological and industrial spaces and methods to extract and transform sulphur during the 1920s-1960s; 2) the role played by sulphur industry in Mexican projects of import substitution industrialization and modernization of agriculture; and 3) the technological and economic connections between Mexican industries and transnationals counterparts. The proposed periodization is divided into four historical stages. The first stage, accordingly, begins when German and American chemical factories in Mexico opened a domestic market for sulphur, synthetic raw materials and chemical products (1920-1942). The second period on which I focus began with the Mexican expropriation of foreign oil companies in 1938 and the nationalization of German chemical firms in 1942. In such process, the Mexican government acquired technologies and patents to manufacture petrochemicals and agrochemicals, whose operation required sulphur. The third phase that this project pretends to analyze, will explore the export sulphur boom at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec by American Companies (1954-1964). In this period, favored by the rapid growth of international chemical and petrochemical industries in Postwar United States and Europe, Mexico became the second world largest sulphur producer. Finally, the fourth stage comprises the mexicanization of the Isthmian sulphur industry (1965) and the regional creation of a petrochemical and agrochemical corridor that would work with capital and raw materials provided by national oil and sulphur companies (1966-1972). In technological terms, the first stage coincided with the rise of the Calcaroni mining industry at the Guaxcamá mines, in the state of San Luis Potosí; the second one corresponded with the production of sulphur by secondary recovery plants in oil and metallurgical refineries at Poza Rica, Veracruz, and Torreón, Coahuila; and the latter ones comprised the development of Frasch-based sulphur industry in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. As mentioned above, all these stages coincided with significant steps towards economic globalization around the world and technological development, which obliges us to think about the economic development of the region in wider context.


(2015): Los señores del oro: producción, distribución y consumo de oro entre los mexicas, México, INAH, Escuela Nacional de Conservación, Restauración y Museografía “Manuel del Castillo Negrete”.

(2012): “El viaje de William More Gabb a Baja California en 1867”, in: Azuela, Luz Fernanda and Rodrigo Vega y Ortega (Eds.), Naturaleza y territorio en la ciencia mexicana del siglo XIX, México, UNAM, Instituto de Geografía, pp. 107-135.