‘Translation’ has been advanced for some time as a key concept in cultural studies, and it can also be used effectively in the area of Latin American cultures. The term’s meaning ranges from implying ‘translation acts’ in the true (inter-lingual) sense within the domain of (not only literary) textual production to a metaphorical use of the term for describing cultural transfer activities. In the latter case, it looks more closely at the ‘space of the translation activity’ that opens between the source and target cultures and is characterized by multiple complex processes. Latin American cultures, in this sense, are viewed from historical and contemporary perspectives as “translation cultures”, which contribute to and are situated within explorations of the continent’s transnational and transcultural cross-linkages. “Translation cultures” are to be understood here in the sense of an overall concept, which can be deepened and differentiated first and foremost in the field of Latin American literatures and cultures. Particular attention therefore is paid to recent literary developments in Latin America against the backdrop of the transnational and global literary scene, as well as to the circulation of theoretical and aesthetic concepts within the transregional space of South-South exchange processes (e.g. Latin America and India) and literary, medial and cultural translation processes from historical and contemporary perspectives.